Tuesday, April 3, 2012

Parava or Paravar (பரவர்), also known as Parathavar (Paradavar) (பரதவர்), Bharathar (பரதர்) [1], Bharatha Pandiyar (பரத பாண்டியர்) [2][3] or Bharathakula Kshathriyar (பரதகுல சத்ரியர்)[4][5]. Paravar is one of the ancient aristocratic[6][7], seafaring warrior [8][9]castes of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. They are the heirs of ancient Pandya Kings[10].[11] They founded the Pandyan Empire and hoisted their Fish flag. They are the descendants Bharatha Vamsa of the Lunar Dynasty Chandravanshi[12] and also called as Nila Paravar. The Pandyan empire was dominated by the Paravars.Now Paravars are dwelling around the coastal belt extending from Kanyakumari to Ramanathapuram in the districts of Tuticorin,Ramanathapuram,Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari,having their headquarters at Tuticorin.Also,they are found amongst the Tamil diaspora around the world.



Etymology & Origin

There are various names for Paravar like Parathavar, Bharathar, Bharathavarma Pandiyar and Bharathakula Kshatriyar. The name Parathavar (பரதவர்) was the initial name and the later names of Paravar came because of their seafaring nature, In Tamil Paravai means sea and Bharathar because of their connection with the Bharathavamsa of Chandravanshi. The name Bharathavarma Pandiyar is given to them during the later Pandya regime, in order to distinguish from Maravarma Pandiyars ( Maravars),who are their akin and front line defenders of Pandian army. The name Bharathakula kshatriya is to distinguish them as Kshatriyas, the ruling caste.Also,Kurukula Karaiyars seem to be from the same stock ,who dwell along Cholamandalam (Coromandel)coast. Later after the conversion to Christianity, they are called with the surnames as Fernandos, Fernandez etc. Paravar refers not only the people living on the coast of the Indian states of Tamilnadu, Kerala and in parts of northern and western Sri Lanka (Ceylon), it denotes the chiefs of Madurai Country[13]. In Tamil language and literature, the coastal areas where they lived were called 'Neythal Thinai'. Also, Rev. Father Henry Heras S.J. gives the following description of the Paravars in his Mohenjo Daro, “The People and the Land”. Paravanad – the country of the Paravas (Sea– in Tamil “paravai”). They are still numerous in the Coromandel Coast in South India and in Ceylon.


They were Kings,Chieftains,Velirs[14],ferocious warriors and seafarers.[15] They controlled the entire Tamil navy at all times and their armed forces were called as Parathavar Padai (பரதவர் படை). Tuticorin city in Tamil Nadu, India which is still a stronghold of the Paravar community was the centre of the pearl trade. The Paravars later diversified to sea based professions including pearl diving, fishing, navigating, and salt making.For centuries the Paravars had been pearl divers. However in the 19th century pearl oysters in the Gulf of Mannar, between India and Sri Lanka, became scarce. They were excellent shipbuilders. Their catamarans were the first type of ship encountered by the English with two hulls; the Tamil word for it was adopted into the English language as a loanword. Additionally, the Paravars grew palms and other dry plantation crops. The Paravars have a long tradition of learning and are one of the earliest communities to have a high literacy rate. This is attributed to their traditional profession of navigator and the influence of Christian missionaries. The riches brought through sea trips were incorporated into houses, including expensive woods such as teak.

History of Paravars

Paravars are proud about their caste heritage. They are said to be the rulers of Pandiyan kingdom of Madurai[16][17] . Tuticorin the port city of the Pandiyan kingdom,has always been a stronghold of the Paravars. The Paravars were the cheifs of the coastal region and also they ruled as subordinates velirs of the Pandyas of the Sangam age.[18] The Paravars headquarters was Korkai harbour during the regime of Pandiyan Kingdom and they all spread into 22 fishing hamlets namely Muttom, Pillaithoppu, Rajakka Mangalam thurai, Periyakadu, Pozhikkarai, Kesavan Puthanthurai, Puthanthurai, Kovalam, Kanyakumari, Kumari muttam, Kootapuli, Perumanal, Idinthakarai, Kuthenkuly, Uvari, Periathalai, Pudukarai, Manapad, Alanthalai, Thiruchendur, Virapandianpatnam, Thalambuli, Punnaikayal, Palayakayal, Tuticorin, Vaippar, Chethupar, Vembar & Mookur in the pearl fishery coast of Gulf of Mannar and adjacent Comerin coast. The paravars once a very powerful people and no doubt derived much of their ascendancy over other tribes from their knowledge of navigation and pearl fishery. They had a succession of kings among them, distinguished by the title Adiarasen Some of these cheifs seem to have resided at Uttara Kosmangay near Ramnad.[19] The story of this city itself is clear evidence to this fact. Later, the leaders were called by names Thalaivan, Pattankattiyars, Araiyars and Adappannars. Paravars lived along with Maravar (Thevar) in harmony, since they were blood related and from the same stock [20]. Famous titles of "Rayar", has been shared by members of these two royal kshathriya clans of Pandya kingdom. As Muttom is the western boundary for the community. Villages Pillaithoppu and Muttom, there was a small settlements of Mukkuvar, which earlier multiplied and Parava community numbers at present are small. Apart from Tuticorin Manapadu and Pillaithoppu had the privilege of having the Vicariate of Jesuit Missionaries for sometime during the Dutch period

Religion and Paravars

The first well-documented history of the Tamil land is reflected in the literature of sangam which is found grouped in Ettuthogai and Pathupattu. These first three centuries sangam age works talk a lot about Paravar or Parathar community which extended from Rameswaram to Kanniyakumari. The main maritime profession of paravars is fishing in the sea. In olden days they were even involved in manufacturing salt. They were experts in pearl and chank fishing. Ahananooru of the Sangam literature depicts of Paravar profession. Korkai, the famous harbour town of Pandya kingdom was thickly populated and ruled by paravars. In olden days paravars were engaged in trading with Greece, Rome, Egypt, China, Java, Burma and Ceylon. Korkai pearl was the most famous item exported from Tamil land.

Paravars worshipped Varunan. Pattinappaalai (200 AD) gives a vivid picture of Varunan cult of Paravars. The fisherfolk call the sea as Mother Sea and revere her as Goddess. Ahananooru talks about sea Goddess. The records of the Travancore Census Report 1931 mentions about the inscription at the Cape Comorin temple. It talks about a Paravar King Villavaraya of Cape who ruled the coastal land for about 800 years. It is also believed that the temple at Cape was built by the Paravars for their Sea Goddess. The Paravars' natural attachment to Madurai Meenakshi Amman temple also can be attributed as a great sign of their reverence to their Mother Goddess.

When the southern people started changing their religion under the northern influence, paravars also followed the suit. During the Cholas and later Pandiya kings regime Paravars were believers of Saivisim. There were many highly learned and spiritually bolstered Saivites in Paravar Community.

From 1311 onward the Muslim rulers began to invade Pandiyan Empire and continued repeated onslaught on them. In 1323 they captured the Pandian Kingdom. The Muslims being very powerful at sea and having the support of local Kings started forcing the Paravars to embrace Islam. But they failed every time. In 1516 the Muslims captivated whole pearl fishery on lease from Udaya Marthanda Varma and Paravars were brinked to the state of slavery. And for the first time ever in the history the Paravars lost their right over the pearl fishery.

Day by day the Muslims and their dominance became more stronger and the paravar community was left helpless. Unaided by the neighbors and exposed to the danger of being wiped out by the Muslims, Paravars found timely help from an unexpected quarter. The Portuguese expressed their willingness to help if they consented to become Christians. After studying the suggestion Paravar community decided to embrace Christianity en masse. Thus, in 1533, nearly 30,000 Paravars got back their right over Pearl fishery. In 1542 Saint Francis Xavier came to Pearl Coasts to strengthen their Christian faith.

During the baptism of Paravars, the Portuguese happened to be God-fathers. So they had given their names to Paravars. Even after 460 years these surnames are still prevalent in the Paravar community. 68 such names are existing amongst which Fernando, Fernandes are mostly used. Few Paravars embraced Islam too.The Tamil Muslims called Maraikkayars (Marakkala Arayar) are Paravar converts to Islam,they dwell around Kayalpattinam coastal belt.

Paravan in Other States/Countries

In Kerala, Paravans are part of Hindus caste unlike Tamil Nadu. They are inland fishermen, mostly found in central and southern parts of the state. The President of India, K. R. Narayanan, served from 1997 until 2002 and was born to a Paravan family of Kottayam, Kerala.But, Paravan in Kerala are entirely different from paravan in Sri Lanka. Paravan in Sri Lanka are Aryan but, in Kerala they are scheduled caste. There are many place names derived from Paravan, like Paravoor in Kollam and Vadakkan Paravoor and Parur in Ernakulam.

In Sri Lanka, members of this caste are mostly known by the surnames Fernando, Coonghe, Poobalrayer, and Costa.

History of Conversion of Paravars to Christianity in Tamil Nadu

The Paravars were a Tamil fisher caste who inhabited the fishery coast extending from Cape Comorin Kanya Kumari to the isle of Mannar (Rameswaram) along the gulf that bears the name. The Paravars plied the trade of pearl fishing, diving for pearls to the bottom of the deep where they could stay for many hours. The season for pearl-fishing came round once in three years in the months of march and November when, in the absence of the strong winds, they were able to carry on their operations undisturbed- for pearls in March and for seed-pearls in November. They undertook these expeditions after elaborate preparations consisting of examination and sounding of the ocean. At the spots where they selected for beginning their operations- which generally in the vicinity of the Mannar and Tuticorin – there they would establish whole colonies of pearl-fishers which would be abandoned at the end of the season. (Silva Rego Documentação Vol.-II pp359–60)

The Paravars paid a small tax to the state for permission to scour the deep for pearls. In the first quarter of the 16th century, this contribution which was paid to the Pandyas (Tamils) till then, came to be shared by the two powers between whom the coast was divided – the king of Travancore, Chera Udaya Martanda, who annexed the southern half of the coastal territory and the Vanga Tumbichi Nayak, who possessed himself to the north. In 1516, however the state dues were farmed out by a Muslim who on account of the profits he has realized, became the virtual master of the coast Documentacao vol.- II p361).

According to Barbosa, he was so rich and powerful that the people of the land honored him as much as the king. He executed judgement and justice on the Muslims without interference from the constituted authority. The fishers (parathavars) toiled for him for a whole week at the close of the season, and for themselves for the rest of the time except on Fridays when they worked for the owners of the boats (Dames, The book of Duarte Barbosa Vol.-II pp123–24).

The Portuguese, who were the masters of the seas, coveted this business and soon wrested it from the Muslims. In 1523, João Froles, whom the Portuguese king appointed as Captain and Factor of the fishery coast, succeeded in farming out the dues of 1,500 cruzados a year (Corea oriente Portuguese vol.-II PP 778–79,786-87). The Muslims wouldn't yield to their rivals without a struggle. But the brunt of their attacks was visited upon the Paravas. For in their attempt to baulk the Portuguese of their gains, they constantly harassed the poor fishers. In consequence, the Portuguese had to maintain a flying squadron to beat off the attacks of the Muslim Corsairs-as they termed their enemies. Just at this juncture, Vijayanagar, which had earlier connived at the occupation of the coast by the King of Travancore and Tumbichi Nayak, vigorously intervened in support of the Pandya king. The Vijayanagar forces inflicted severe defeat on the Travancore army, and with the appearance of Vijayanagar on the fishery coast there was cessation of hostilities between the Portuguese and the Muslims (Silva Rego –Oriente Portuguese Vol.-II pp362–65). About the year 1536 an incident occurred which threatened to throw the coastal people into the throes of a violent internecine warfare. In a scuffle between a Muslim and a Parava at Tuticorin, the Paravar had his ear torn out by his adversary, who out of sheer greed for the ring it bore, carried with him. Now there was in the estimation of the Paravars no greater affront than to have one's ears boxed and much worse, to have the rings torn off. The incident sparked off a civil war between the Paravars and the Muslims, and it was soon apparent that the Paravas would be beaten in the struggle. A Muslim flotilla guarded the coast making it impossible for the Paravas to ply their trade, and offering five fanams (panam, the then currency, even today in Tamilnadu its common for the Tamil to term money as panam) for a Parava head (Luceana , Historia da Vida do padre S.Francisco Xavier , vol.-I liv II , cap .VII).

Happily for the Paravars, there happened to arrive at Cape Comorin (present day Kanya Kumari) at this time João da Cruz, a horse dealer who was high in Portuguese favour. He was a page of the Zamorin who had sent him to Portugal towards the end of 1512, when he was negotiating a treaty with Albuquerque. He was converted to Christianity while he was there and was admitted to the order of the Christ. He was now no longer in the service of the Zamorin, having incurred his displeasure for changing his religion. João da Cruz, who was waiting payment for his deal at the cape (Kanya Kumari), was approached by the Paravas for advice. Cruz could see no way of saving them from their predicament other than conversion to Christianity. For then they would be entitled to the protection of the Portuguese and could, as a matter of right, invoke the aid of the Portuguese Padroado. The Paravas had no alternative but to agree and Cruz led a deputation of twenty pattankattis (leaders) of the Paravas to cochin to wait on Pero Vaz, the Vedor da Fazenda (Reeve), and Miguel Vaz, the Vicar-General. These pleaded the case of the Paravas before Nuno da Cunha, the Governor, and it was decided that they be helped against their Muslim opponents. Accordingly a Portuguese squadron appeared before Cape Comorin (Kanya kumari).

The Muslim flotilla sought safety in flight and the Paravars freed from bondage could from now on ply their trade independently of the farmers, both Muslim and Portuguese. In the meanwhile, Cruz persuaded the King of Travancore not to object to the conversion of the Paravas in a body to the Christian religion, assuring him that if he was friendly with the Portuguese he could depend on his supply of war steeds, the mainstay of the army in those days.

The Paravars apart from getting converted also had to shell out 60,000 fanams to Portuguese as protection money. This was further used to induce more conversions. Miguel Vaz thereupon visited the Paravas accompanied by four priests and administered baptism to about twenty thousand people. In a few years, the number rose to eighty thousand men, women, and children and the Christianity spread among these people, settled both on the Malabar and Coromandel coasts (Documentação Vol.-II PP 257–59; Schurhammer ,art cit. pp304–07). The Paravas now had the protection of the Portuguese fleet and could follow their profession undisturbed.

Paravas were the first whole community in India to convert to Christianity in the mid 16th century. The name 'Fernando', a predominant surname and other surnames were acquired from the Portuguese, who influenced the Paravas. There are as many as 100 or more of these surnames - Fernando, Fernandez, Motha, Mel, Mascarenhas, Victoria, Miranda, Devotta, De Cruz, De Souza, Gomez, Dalmeida, Vaz, Desoyza, Poobalarayan,Rodrigo, Rodriguez,lobo, etc., which were given by St. Francis Xavier, other missionaries and Portuguese officers during the 16th century.The King of paravas at that point of time in history was Vikrama aditya Pandian [21] based out of Veerapandianpattinam later the ruling family and their office moved to tuticorin based on Dutch request.

The Portuguese called the area where the Paravas lived as "Costa da Pescaria" - or Land of the Pearls. Their spiritual, cultural and literary excellency brought out the first Tamil book to modern print media. The Tamil Bible, 'Cardila', was printed in 1554 and made Tamil the first language into print for any Indian language. This was even before the first printing machine arrived Goa, India in 1556. Cardila was printed at Lisbon by the command of the Portuguese government with the motivation by the visits of three Paravars Vincent Nasareth, Joj Kavalko and Thomas Cruz from Tuticorin, India to Portugal. The funding for the press came from the Parvar community of Tuticorin. Planting of the Roman Catholic Faith in Pearl Fishery Coast (India) Christianity in ancient India

It is admitted on all hands, that one of the greatest and most successful group conversion movements in India was that of the Paravars in the 16th century.

The first great effort of the Catholic Church in modern times to conquer India in the name of Christ, dates from the year 1498 when the adventurous caravels of the Portuguese Admiral Vasco da Gama sailed into the port of Calicut. Soon the flag of Portugal floated on the seaboard from Morocco, round South Africa to the Persian Gulf and round the Indian Peninsula. In 1534 there were Portuguese factories at trading centers at Bassein Goa, Cochin, Quilon and Colombo. On the fishery and Coromandel Coasts, in Malacca and beyond. And as Pope Leo XIII has written: “Everywhere the flag of Portugal was under the shadow of the cross: the conquests of Portugal were so many conquests of religion”. The conversion of the Paravars is an instance in point.

Conversion of the Paravars

The circumstances of the Paravars' conversion were recounted in a 1542 letter by Dom João da Cruz:

It was in these circumstances that Dom João da Cruz pointed out to the Paravars the way out of the difficulty. Conversion to Christianity would forever secure them the Portuguese protection. Who was Dom Jooã da Cruz? According to Rev. Father Schurhammers, the highest authority on St. Francis Xavier and his works he was a chetty born in Calicut. In 1513, hardly fifteen years old, he had been sent to Lisbon by the Zamorin, as his envoy, to King Manuel had been received there very honorable and baptized under the above-mentioned name. In 1515 he was raised to the Knighthood with the insignia and privileges of a Chevalier of the Order of Christ.
It was he who persuaded the Paravars to send fifteen leading men to Cochin. However, the Portuguese Captain Pero Vaz de Amaral, to make sure that the Whole Caste was ready to join the Faith, made seventy more of their people come to Cochin to endorse the decision. This was done.
Meanwhile, the Moors, getting wind of these negotiations and fearing that their prey and the pearl fishing would escape them, dispatched two envoys to Cochin in order to bribe Pero de Vaz, not to allow the baptism of the Paravas. But in vain. “Heaps of gold of my own size”, answered the captain, “will never make me desist from my purpose”.
He then had the eighty-five Paravars baptized by the Vicar General, Miguel Vaz who was just at the time in Cochin (Probably December, 1535), and he put at their disposal a fleet, which with the vicar of Cochin and four priests along with the neophytes, sailed to the rescuer. Within a short time the Moors got the deserved punishment and Paravars once more were put I possession of their pearl fishing rights. About Twenty Thousand of them in Thirty Villages were baptized. This is how, concludes humorously Teixeira, “Our Lord saved so many souls by means of one torn ear-lobe”.

The Paravars and the Saint: On May 6, 1542

St. Francis Xavier

St Francis Xavier arrived in Goa and after a stay of five months in Goa, he left for the Pearl Fishery Coast about six hundred miles from Goa, taking with him three Tamil Students from the college (One of them was in Deacon’s order the others were catechists to serve as interpreters). They arrived in Tuticorin in September 1542. Xavier living in and proselytized from a sea cave in Manapad.

St. Francis Xavier made the catechistical instruction interesting by his singing and by making the children sing. The instruction is ended by the Salva Regina, begging the aid and help of the "blessed lady".

Catechists and Teachers:

St. Francis Xavier appointed catechists and teachers in all the villages to continue the conversion work he had begun. It was his method to be liberal to the teachers and catechists, to pay them a part of their salary in advance and to encourage them in every way. At the same time he let them feel that they were carefully watched and must be on their guard not to fail in their duty. They were to baptize newborn infants, preside at the prayers and perform other offices of the kind.

To meet the heavy expenses of paying the teachers and catechists St. Francis Xavier had recourse to a stratagem.

Four hundred crowns a year had been set-aside for Queen Catherine of Portugal from revenue of the Pearl Fisheries and the sum was supposed to provide Her Majesty with slippers. St. Francis Xavier seems already to have persuaded the governor to pay it over to him, so sure were they both that the pious Queen would gladly let him have it for the salaries of the Kanakapillais (catechists are known even today by this name along the Fishery Coast – they are doing small works in Catholic churches). In asking her permission to consent to what had been done, he reminded her that she could have no better shoes or slippers to climb into Heaven than her charity towards the children of the Fishery Coast. For many years the Queen’s slipper money was donated by her to this mission.

It is true that the Paravars were baptized eight years before the arrival of St. Francis Xavier. But it was only after the arrival of Francis Xavier that the conversion and evangelical activity proceeded with all the gusto.

St. Francis Xavier understood the necessity and utility of employing zealous catechists and teachers to keep up the faith of the neophytes. To have zealous catechists and teachers, money is needed. He found ways and means to pay the teachers and catechists well. Little wonder that the catechists and teachers did their work more than willingly.

After four Centuries, it is not rare to find catechists paid only a pittance and that too not regularly for most people have been converted already.

(Issued on Panimaya Malar – Thanga ther (Golden Car) 2000).

Paravars in Indian freedom Struggle

The Tuticorin, also called as muthukulithurai (pearlharbour) was in the stronghold of the paravars, where first indigenous ship was set to sail by V.O. Chidhambaram during the British rule in India. This was an attempt to check the dominance of British in the export and imports by sea. Holding very strong Catholics tradition from Portuguese and later by Saint Xavier, paravars had to face to British as both as Indians and also as a Catholics. The British tried hard to impose their Anglican sect.

Family Names

Surnames in Tamil pronunciation Algungem (a Portuguese word) existing among Paravars (Bharathars). To mention a few among them:

{{[33] List of Paravar last names}}

The above are only family names and not Caste names. The above names are used not only by Paravars. The names are also used by those who were converted to Christianity by the Portuguese. Mainly people who live in Tamil Nadu (Paravars), Sri Lanka (Bharatakula and others), Kerala, Goa & Philippines.

Paravar, Parathavar, Parathar,paruvatharajakulam,Bharathar's, Literal Evidence for Pandyan Royal lineage

The famous Pandya king Thalayalanganathu seru vendra Pandiyan Nedunchezian was given an appraisal as Then Parathavar Pore Yerei ( தென் பரதவர் போரேறே ),which means,the royal war lion of southern Parathavar clan[22] and calls him Parathava thalaivan பரதவ தலைவன் .Also,Cholan Ilansetchenni after defeating the pandyas and vadugas was praised as தென் பரதவர் மிடல் சாய[23], Also,the chilapathikaram verses say,Arasar murayo Bharathar murayo ( அரசர் முறையோ பரதர் முறையோ),also the verses like

"மேவிய கொள்கை வீதியில் செறிந்துஆங்கு/On the aisle of the castle

ஐம்பெருங் குழுவும் எண்பேர் ஆயமும்/the Distinguished Five members crew and Eight major wings

அரச குமரரும் பரத குமரரும்/Along with Kings men and Bharathar men

கவர்ப்பரிப் புரவியர் களிற்றின் தொகுதியர்/The knights and Elite War Elephant force

இவர்ப்பரித் தேரினர் இயைந்துஒருங்கு ஈண்டி"/And the Chariots were marching to celebrate the "Indira Vila"

இந்திர விழவு ஊர் எடுத்த காதை -160 [24],[25] these verses of Chilapathikaram says the glory of Bharathar" and the glorification of Kovalan as பரதவ குமரன் gives a clear cut evidence that bharathar were in a highly esteemed noble position. Tamil dictionaries provide the same meaning for the word Parathavar பரதவர்-தென்திசைகள் குறுநில மன்னர் ie) Parathavar-Kings and Chieftains of South. Also evidences say that a sub clan of Paravars,called Chavalakarars were the spearmen of the Pandyan army and "Kazhakath tamil Agarathi" confirms the same (சவளக்காரர்-ஈட்டி ஏந்தி போர் புரியும் வீரர் ) ie)Chavalakarar-Spearmen of the army.

Arattipatti Inscription

MADURAI SEPT.14. A rare 3rd century B.C. Tamil Brahmi inscription found near Madurai recently has brought to light the fact that not only Pandyas and Cheras but the chiefs of the coastal region in the State also patronised Jainism in the early period. The discovery by a team of epigraphists, who undertook a survey at Arittapatti in Melur taluk, is a remarkable evidence of history of early Tamil politics, culture and language, State Archaeology department sources said here recently.

The inscription was found engraved in a cave of a hillock, where early Jain monks stayed and preached their faith. It is just four feet away from another Brahmi inscription discovered by some scholars in 1971. "Since this new inscription is carved with very thin strokes and illegible, it had not attracted the attention of the scholars so far in spite of their frequent visits to this cave," say the sources.

The inscription, engraved as a single line with 33 letters and running for 3.10 metres, reads as follows: ilanjiy vel mapparavan makan emayavan nalmuzhaukai kotupithavan. It means, "Emayavan, son of Mapparavan, cheif of Ilanji, has caused the carving of this auspicious cave." It has been written in the Bhattiprolu (Andhra Pradesh) casket inscription method and so all short consonants have long strokes. As the orthography of this inscription resembles that of Mangulam inscriptions (also in Madurai district), its date may be assigned to 3rd century B.C., say the sources.

`Ilanji' denotes the name of a place, while `Vel' means cheiftain. Ilanji Vel might have been a ruler of a small territory around Ilanji. There is also a village near Courtallam with the same name. Emayavan, cheif of Ilanji, was the son of Mapparavan. `Paravar' denotes the people of coastal region settled in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. `Muzhaukai' means the cave in which the inscription is found and the prefix, `nal' auspiciousness.

The same word, `Nalmuzhaukai' occurs in Varichiyur Brahmi inscription also. The previous inscription found at Arittapatti also bears the word `Muzhagai', which also means cave. One of the Sangam works, `Madurai Kanchi' refers to the battle among Paravars for the supremacy of Pandiyan Kingdom,where other Paravars and their Chera,Chola allies were defeated by Pandyan Nedunchezhian. Even the Velvikudi copper plate speaks of the defeat suffered by Tenparavar at the hands of a Pandya king, the sources point out.

All this evidence makes clear that the Paravars were the cheifs of the coastal region and they ruled their areas as subordinates of the Pandyas of the Sangam age. The previously discovered Brahmi inscription at Arittapatti also mentions about a chief from Nelveli (now Tirunelveli region). The inscription throws light on the proximity the chiefs of Nelveli to the Pandyas of Madurai in the Sangam age.

As many as 60 Tamil Brahmi inscriptions were found during the past over 100 years from 15 villages including, Mangualm, Anaimalai, Azhagarmalai, Tiruvadavur, Keezhavalavu, Tirupparankundram and Varichiyur.

The epigraphists, comprising P. Rajendran, V. Vedachalam, C. Santhalingam and R. Jayaraman, as per directions of the Commissioner of Archaeology, R. Kannan, undertook the survey.

Source: [34]

Who are the Paravars?

Rev. Father Henry Heras S.J. gives the following description of the Paravars in his Mohenjo Daro, “The People and the Land”. Paravanad – the country of the Paravas (Sea – in Tamil “paravai”). They are still numerous in the Coromandel Coast in South India and in Ceylon. The Paravars were a section of the Minas. In a footnote Father Heras says that they are Aryan descent, the Paravars are called as Bharathas (also Bharathars, Parathars, Parathavars) identifying with the Bharathas of the Vedic period. The Mohenjo Daro inscriptions clearly show that their ancient and real name was Paravar. They are also believed as the descendants of King Bharatha,who ruled the whole of India in the name of Bharatha varsha.Also some Sanskrit text says that kings of Bharatha vamsa were given the surname Paravaie)Pauravas viz.Karna Parava, Yudishthra Parava, Bhishma Parava etc... Also the Pandavas, final course of archery including the attack of Matsya Yantra speaks clearly about their fishing Background.Also Sahadeva Parava the younger among Pandavas made expeditions and explorations across the sea,abroad the Bharatha varsha,and its believed that his descendants live along the southern coast with the name of Bharathars.

There were two subdivisions in the Paravars. Pagal Paravas and Nila Paravas, i.e. Sun Paravas and Moon Paravas. The Paravas of South India and Ceylon are Moon Paravas. The Moon Paravas seem to have been the more important of the line. They constituted one fourth of the whole Mina stock. In the middle of their land, the exact location of which cannot be ascertained, the sign of the Moon was hoisted. The country where the Paravas lived was sometimes called Paravanad – once only in the inscriptions – on account of their political importance and their riches. Their main city was called Paravarpalli, the city of the Paravas. The king of the Paravas always received the title of Minavan and his banner had two fishes on it.

Famous Paravars







See also


  1. ^ [1] Castes and Tribes of Southern India,By Edgar Thurston
  2. ^ [2] History of the Tamils: from the earliest times to 600 A.D. By P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar,P-139 "Paradavar are Pandiyar and cheifs of madura country"
  3. ^ [3] Indian Hist (Opt)By Reddy "Proclamation of Pandian Nedunchezian as Parathavar Warlord is supported by the author"
  4. ^ [4][5] Martial races of undivided India By Vidya Prakash Tyagi"Maravar and Paravar constitute the Kshatriya Varna of Tamil Caste system"
  5. ^ [6] Śaṅgam polity: the administration and social life of the Śaṅgam Tamils by N.Subrahmaniam "Paradavar were ferocious warriors,who were in great demand.P-151"
  6. ^ [7]"Paravars are velir,Ilanji Vel is a Paravar"
  7. ^ [8] Census of India, 1971: A. General report India. Office of the Registrar General, K. Chockalingam,Caste, race and religion in India by Sarat Chandra Roy (Rai Bahadur)"They had series of vertical classification as Mannar,Velir....Noble man"
  8. ^ [9] Śaṅgam polity: the administration and social life of the Śaṅgam Tamils by N.Subrahmaniam "Paradavar were ferocious warriors,who were in great demand.P-151"
  9. ^ [10] South Indian studies by Harōgadde Mānappa Nāyaka, Balakrishnan Raja Gopal, T. V. Mahalingam "Once again confirms Pandian Nedunchezian as Parathavar Warlord"
  10. ^ [11] Martial races of undivided India By Vidya Prakash Tyagi "Paravars and Maravars are called as Meenavan and Pandyan"
  11. ^ [12] The cult of Draupadī By Alf Hiltebeitel
  12. ^ [13] Castes and Tribes of Southern India By Edgar Thurston
  13. ^ [14] History of the Tamils: from the earliest times to 600 A.D.By P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar
  14. ^ [15]"Paradavar are chiefs of Madurai Country",[16]"Paravars are velir-Chieftain, Ilanji Vel is a Paravar"
  15. ^ [17]"Sangam Polity:the administration and social life of sangam Tamils,P.No:151 says, Paradavar of southern region are ferocious soldiers, who were in great demand"
  16. ^ [18] History of the Tamils: from the earliest times to 600 A.D.By P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar P-139
  17. ^ [19](Verses of Mathurai kanji stating that Pandian Neduchezian and his subjects were Parathavar
  18. ^ [20] Arattipatti Inscriptions
  19. ^ [21],Oriental studies by Hugh Nevill,At Early periods the tinnevelly and ramnad belt was inhabited and ruled by their own kings P.No.62
  20. ^ [22] Oriental Studies by hugh Nevill,P.No.19 "Probably Marawar a tribe at present was a social grade among paravars who trade in long boats"
  21. ^ [23]"According to Bishop Caldwell's Research"
  22. ^ [24]"மணிப்பூ முண்டகத்து மணன்மலி கானற் // 96 // மணி பூ முண்டகத்து மணல் மலி கானல் பரதவர் மகளிர் குரவையொ டொலிப்ப..... யொன்றுமொழி யொலியிருப்பிற் // 143 // ஒன்று மொழி ஒலி இருப்பின் றென்பரதவர் போரேறே // 144 // தென் பரதவர் போர் ஏறே"
  23. ^ [25]"P.T.Srinivasa Iyengar says,Pandyas are paradavar and paradavar are not only boat men but also cheifs of madura country"
  24. ^ [26]"The Kings men,The Bharathar men"
  25. ^ [27]"Stating உரைசால் சிறப்பின் அரைசுவிழை திருவின் பரதர் மலிந்த பயம்கெழு மாநகர் முழங்குகடல் ஞாலம் முழுவதும் வரினும் வழங்கத் தவாஅ வளத்தது ஆகி அரும்பொருள் தருஉம் விருந்தின் தேஎம் ,
  26. ^ [28]
  • Iyengar, P. T. Srinivasa (1929). History of the Tamils from the Earliest Times to 600 A. D..
  • Sangam Polity:the administration and social life of sangam tamils. Ennes. 1996.
  • [1] Kaliththogai
  • [2] Mathurai Kanchi.
  • [3] Oriental studies by Hugh Nevil
  • [4] Silapathikaram
  • Paravar Puranam
  • Matsya Puranam
  • Mohenjadaro Inscriptions on Meenavan kingdom,the fisher kingdom.
  • Thiruvilayadal Puranam,Valai vesu puranam
  • Mahabharatha
  • History of Kurukula
  • History of Indian fishery,By S. C. Agarwal
  • India's legacy:

the world's heritage, Volume 1,Pattotmogar R. Ranganatha Punja

  • History of Kerala,Dr.R.Leela Devi
  • An anthropological study of bodily height of Indian population,Mahadeb Prasad Basu
  • The Indian historical quarterly,volume 13
  • The Journal of Oriental research,Volumes 10-16,Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute., 1936 - History
  • Fishermen of the Coromandel:a social study of the Paravas of the Coromandel,Patrick A. Roch
  • The journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay,Education Society's Press., 1953
  • The history of the Vijayanagar Empire,Volume 1,M. H. Rāma Sharma, Mysore Hatti Gopal
  • From tribe to caste,Dev Nathan, Indian Institute of Advanced Study.
  • Man in India,Volume 49,Sharad Chandra Roy.
  • The geography of British India, political & physical,George Smith.
  • A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707,By Stephen Neill.
  • Peoples of South Asia,Clarence Maloney.
  • Annual bibliography of Indian archaeology,Volumes 11-14,Instituut Kern (Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden)
  • A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar,Nilakanta Sastri Kallidaikurichi Aija

External links

  1. ^ [29]
  2. ^ [30]
  3. ^ [31]
  4. ^ [32]



Is there any proof available with us regarding the first Tamil Bible "Cardila". Can we get the evidence for this from any of the churches here in Tuticorin? Some sort of book or any piece of written or documented evidence.

Brahmanyan said...

Congratulations. Well documented effort about Bharathar Community.

RISKGURU said...

Thanks so very much for shining a light on my ancestry. In an hour's worth of reading and following the links on your website I have obtained a deep and profound connection with my parents and their heritage.

Gresilz said...

Fish Doctor,The proofs are available with Our Lady of Snows Church,Thuthukudy.you can find it commonly in Facebook Paravar groups

Gresilz said...

Thank you Mr.Brahmanyam

Gresilz said...

You are most welcome Mr.Risk Guru.Thanks for the acknowledgement

Unknown said...

Excellent write up on Bharathars,I guess this is the first blog on the internet about bharathar community.

Unknown said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Unknown said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
mathew fernandez said...

John Ephraim Fernandez was the 10th Mayor of Corporation of Trivandrum.

Anonymous said...

See paravars r great community but we want to rule there is no political support we should find the solution

Anonymous said...

See paravars r great community but we want to rule there is no political support we should find the solution

Anonymous said...

Pandiyan kingdom was dominated by parathavars occupation fishing pearlharvesting sea trade & fish flag belongs to parathavars great community

Unknown said...

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Unknown said...

Hi Mr.Gresilz,I would like to lnow about History of Perez family.Can u please share some information about the same?


வில்லவர் மற்றும் பாணர்

பாண்டிய என்பது வில்லவர் மற்றும் பாண ஆட்சியாளர்களின பட்டமாகும். இந்தியா முழுவதும் பாணர்கள் அரசாண்டனர். இந்தியாவின் பெரும்பகுதி பாண ஆட்சியாளர்களால் ஆளப்பட்டது. இந்தியா முழுவதும் பாண்பூர் எனப்படும் ஏராளமான இடங்கள் உள்ளன. இவை பண்டைய பாணர்களின் தலைநகரங்கள் ஆகும். பாணர்கள் பாணாசுரா என்றும் அழைக்கப்பட்டனர்.

கேரளா மற்றும் தமிழ்நாட்டை ஆண்ட வில்லவரின் வடக்கு உறவினர்கள் பாணர்கள் ஆவர். கர்நாடகாவிலும் ஆந்திராவிலும் பாணர்கள் ஆண்டனர்.

வில்லவர் குலங்கள்

1. வில்லவர்
2. மலையர்
3. வானவர்

வில்லவரின் கடலோர உறவினர்கள் மீனவர் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டனர்

4. மீனவர்

பண்டைய காலங்களில் இந்த அனைத்து துணைப்பிரிவுகளிலிருந்தும் பாண்டியர்கள் தோன்றினர். அவர்கள் துணை குலங்களின் கொடியையும் பயன்படுத்தினர். உதாரணத்திற்கு

1. வில்லவர் குலத்தைச் சேர்ந்த பாண்டியன் சாரங்கத்வஜ பாண்டியன் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டார். அவர் ஒரு வில் மற்றும் அம்பு அடையாளமுள்ள கொடியை சுமந்தார்.

2. மலையர் குலத்தைச் சேர்ந்த பாண்டியன் மலையத்வஜ பாண்டியன் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டார். அவர் மலை சின்னத்துடன் ஒரு கொடியை ஏந்தினார்.

3. வானவர் துணைப்பிரிவைச் சேர்ந்த பாண்டியன் ஒரு வில்-அம்பு அல்லது புலி அல்லது மரம் கொடியை ஏந்திச் சென்றார்.

4. மீனவர் குலத்தைச் சேர்ந்த பாண்டியன் ஒரு மீன் கொடியை ஏந்திச்சென்று தன்னை மீனவன் என்று அழைத்துக் கொண்டார்.

பிற்காலத்தில் அனைத்து வில்லவர் குலங்களும் ஒன்றிணைந்து நாடாள்வார் குலங்களை உருவாக்கின. பண்டைய மீனவர் குலமும் வில்லவர் மற்றும் நாடாள்வார் குலங்களுடன் இணைந்தது.

பிற்காலத்தில் வடக்கிலிருந்து குடிபெயர்ந்த நாகர்கள் தென் நாடுகளில் மீனவர்களாக மாறினர். அவர் வில்லவர்-மீனவர் குலங்களுடன் இனரீதியாக தொடர்புடையவர் அல்லர்.

வில்லவர் பட்டங்கள்

வில்லவர், நாடாள்வார், நாடார், சான்றார், சாணார், சண்ணார், சார்ந்நவர், சான்றகர், சாண்டார் பெரும்பாணர், பணிக்கர், திருப்பார்ப்பு, கவரா (காவுராயர்), இல்லம், கிரியம், கண நாடார், மாற நாடார், நட்டாத்தி, பாண்டியகுல ஷத்திரியர் போன்றவை.

பண்டைய பாண்டிய ராஜ்யம் மூன்று ராஜ்யங்களாகப் பிரிக்கப்பட்டது.

1. சேர வம்சம்.
2. சோழ வம்சம்
3. பாண்டியன் வம்சம்

அனைத்து ராஜ்யங்களையும் வில்லவர்கள் ஆதரித்தனர்.

முக்கியத்துவத்தின் ஒழுங்கு

1. சேர இராச்சியம்


2. பாண்டியன் பேரரசு


3. சோழப் பேரரசு


பாணா மற்றும் மீனா

வட இந்தியாவில் வில்லவர் பாணா மற்றும் பில் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டனர். மீனவர், மீனா அல்லது மத்ஸ்யா என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டனர். சிந்து சமவெளி மற்றும் கங்கை சமவெளிகளில் ஆரம்பத்தில் வசித்தவர்கள் பாணா மற்றும் மீனா குலங்கள் ஆவர்.

பாண்டவர்களுக்கு ஒரு வருட காலம் அடைக்கலம் கொடுத்த விராட மன்னர் ஒரு மத்ஸ்யா - மீனா ஆட்சியாளர் ஆவார்.

பாண மன்னர்களுக்கு அசுர அந்தஸ்து இருந்தபோதிலும் அவர்கள் அனைத்து சுயம்வரங்களுக்கும் அழைக்கப்பட்டனர்.


சோனித்பூரில் தலைநகருடன் அசுரா இராச்சியம் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்ட ஒரு பாண இராச்சியம் பண்டைய காலங்களில் அசாமை ஆட்சி செய்தது.

இந்தியா முழுவதும் பாணா-மீனா மற்றும் வில்லவர்-மீனவர் இராச்சியங்கள் கி.பி .1500 வரை, நடுக்காலம், முடிவடையும் வரை இருந்தன.


பாணர் மற்றும் வில்லவர் மன்னர் மகாபாலியை தங்கள் மூதாதையராக கருதினர். மகாபலி பட்டத்துடன் கூடிய ஏராளமான மன்னர்கள் இந்தியாவை ஆண்டனர்.

வில்லவர்கள் தங்கள் மூதாதையர் மகாபலியை மாவேலி என்று அழைத்தனர்.

ஓணம் பண்டிகை

ஓணம் பண்டிகை ஒவ்வொரு ஆண்டும் கேரளாவை ஆண்ட மகாபலி மன்னர் திரும்பி வரும் நாளில் கொண்டாடப்படுகிறது. மாவேலிக்கரை, மகாபலிபுரம் ஆகிய இரு இடங்களும் மகாபலியின் பெயரிடப்பட்டுள்ளன.

பாண்டியர்களின் பட்டங்களில் ஒன்று மாவேலி. பாண்டியர்களின் எதிராளிகளாகிய பாணர்களும் மாவேலி வாணாதி ராயர் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டனர்.

சிநது சமவெளியில் தானவர் தைத்யர்(திதியர்)

பண்டைய தானவ (தனு=வில்) மற்றும் தைத்ய குலங்கள் சிந்து சமவெளியிலுள்ள பாணர்களின் துணைப்பிரிவுகளாக இருந்திருக்கலாம். தைத்யரின் மன்னர் மகாபலி என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டார்.

இந்தியாவில் முதல் அணைகள், ஏறத்தாழ நான்காயிரம் ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்பு சிந்து நதியில் பாண குலத்தினரால் கட்டப்பட்டன.

ஹிரண்யகர்பா சடங்கு

வில்லவர்கள் மற்றும் பாணர் இருவரும் ஹிரண்யகர்பா விழாவை நிகழ்த்தினர். ஹிரண்யகர்பா சடங்கி்ல் பாண்டிய மன்னர் ஹிரண்ய மன்னரின் தங்க வயிற்றில் இருந்து வெளிவருவதை உருவகப்படுத்தினார்.
ஹிரண்யகசிபு மகாபலியின் மூதாதையர் ஆவார்.


வில்லவர் மற்றும் பாணர்

நாகர்களுக்கு எதிராக போர்

கலித்தொகை என்ற ஒரு பண்டைய தமிழ் இலக்கியம் நாகர்களுக்கும் வில்லவர் -மீனவர்களின் ஒருங்கிணைந்த படைகளுக்கும் இடையே நடந்த ஒரு பெரிய போரை விவரிக்கிறது. அந்தப் போரில் வில்லவர்-மீனவர் தோற்கடிக்கப்பட்டு நாகர்கள் மத்திய இந்தியாவை ஆக்கிரமித்தனர்.

நாகர்களின் தெற்கு நோக்கி இடம்பெயர்வு

நாகர்களின் பல்வேறு குலங்கள் தென்னிந்தியா மற்றும் ஸ்ரீலங்காவுக்கு குறிப்பாக கடலோர பகுதிகளுக்கு குடிபெயர்ந்தனர்.

1. வருணகுலத்தோர்
2. குகன்குலத்தோர்
3. கவுரவகுலத்தோர்
4. பரதவர்
5. களப்பிரர்கள்
6. அஹிச்சத்ரம் நாகர்கள்

இந்த நாகர்கள் வில்லவர்களின் முக்கிய எதிரிகள் ஆவர். நாகர்கள் டெல்லி சுல்தானேட், விஜயநகர நாயக்கர்கள் மற்றும் ஐரோப்பியர்கள் காலனித்துவ ஆட்சியாளர்களுடன் கூடி பக்கபலமாக இருந்து வில்லவர்களை எதிர்த்தனர், இது வில்லவர் வீழ்ச்சிக்கு வழிவகுத்தது.

கர்நாடகாவின் பாணர்களின் பகை

பொதுவான தோற்றம் இருந்தபோதிலும் கர்நாடகாவின் பாணர்கள் வில்லவர்களுக்கு எதிரிகளாயிருந்தனர்.

கி.பி 1120 இல் கேரளாவை துளுநாடு ஆளுப அரசு பாண்டியன் இராச்சியத்தைச் சேர்ந்த பாணப்பெருமாள் அராபியர்களின் உதவியுடன் ஆக்கிரமித்தார்.

கி.பி 1377 இல் பலிஜா நாயக்கர்கள் தமிழ்நாட்டை ஆக்கிரமித்தனர். வில்லவரின் சேர சோழ பாண்டியன் இராச்சியங்கள் விஜயநகர சாம்ராஜ்யத்தின் பலிஜா நாயக்கர்களால் (பாணாஜிகா, ஐந்நூற்றுவர் வளஞ்சியர் என்னும் மகாபலி பாணரின் சந்ததியினர்) அழிக்கப்பட்டன.

வில்லவர்களின் முடிவு

1310 இல் மாலிக் கபூரின் படையெடுப்பு பாண்டிய வம்சத்தின் தோல்விக்கு வழிவகுத்தது. வில்லவர்கள் படுகொலை செய்யப்பட்டனர், மேலும் மூன்று தமிழ் ராஜ்யங்களும் முடிவுக்கு வந்தன.

கர்நாடகாவின் பாண்டியன் ராஜ்யங்கள்

கர்நாடகாவில் பல பாணப்பாண்டியன் ராஜ்யங்கள் இருந்தன

1. ஆலுபா பாண்டியன் இராச்சியம்
2. உச்சாங்கி பாண்டியன் இராச்சியம்
3. சான்றாரா பாண்டியன் இராச்சியம்
4. நூறும்பாடா பாண்டியன் இராச்சியம்.

கர்நாடக பாண்டியர்கள் குலசேகர பட்டத்தையும் பயன்படுத்தினர். நாடாவா, நாடாவரு, நாடோர், பில்லவா, சான்றாரா பட்டங்களையும் கொண்டவர்கள்.

ஆந்திரபிரதேச பாணர்கள்

ஆந்திராவின் பாண ராஜ்யங்கள்

1. பாண இராச்சியம்
2. விஜயநகர இராச்சியம்.

பலிஜா, வாணாதிராஜா, வாணாதிராயர், வன்னியர், கவரா, சமரகோலாகலன் என்பவை வடுக பாணர்களின் பட்டங்களாகும்.

பாண வம்சத்தின் கொடிகள்

1. இரட்டை மீன்
2. வில்-அம்பு

1. காளைக்கொடி
2. வானரக்கொடி
3. சங்கு
4. சக்கரம்
5. கழுகு



Maravar, Eyinar, Oviar, Oliar, Aruvalar are Nagas migrated from North India.


Nagas belonged to another race not ethnically related to Dravidians. Nagas were culturally related to Aryans and occupied northern India. Devanagari is language of Aryan as well Nagas. A Naga king called Nahusha could become Indra the king of Devas. In the laterdays Nagas slowly lost their position. Then the Nagas started moving towards south.

Villavar are the Dravidian rulers who ruled Thamilakam since time immemorial. Villavar had three subgroups Villavar,Vanavar and Malayar. The seagoing cousins of Villavar were Meenavar who merged with Villavar in the laterdays. Malayar inhabited the hilly areas while the Malayar inhabited hilly regions where pepper grew. The term Malayali originate from Malayar people. Chera Chola and Pandyan Kingdoms were founded by Villavars. Chera king was called Villavar Kon. Perumchottu Udhiyan Cheralathan is a Chera king who ruled Kerala mention in Mahabharatha ie 1200 BC. Perumchottu Udiyan Cheralathan provided food for Pandavas as well as well as Kauravas.


Banas were the northern cousins and arch enemies of Villavar. Banas used Naga armies to attack Villavar.


In the ancient times Dravidian rulers (Villavar Meenavar) had Suzernity over Cental and Southern India.Kalithokai mentions an ancient war fought by Villavar and Meenavar against Nagas in which they lost Central India to Nagas.

Following the defeat of Villavars the Nagas occupied central India. Nagas migrated along Ganges towards east and founded Kingdoms at Bengal and then spread to Kalinga country. From Kalinga they migrated to west coast of Tamilakam and Srilanka. Srilanka then was called Nagadipa. Nagas further migrated to Malayan peninsula and Java. The language of Nagas was Prakrit the ancient form of Hindi. Pali or Ardh Maghadi language was also favoured by them.Customs such as Matriarchy, Draubadhi worship, Naga worship were brought southern India by Nagas. Each Naga tribe traced their origin to north of Ganges or Sindh area. Though Villavar kings fought, subjugated and made them servants and soldiers, Nagas remained hostile.

In the following era various Naga tribes started migrating to south. Nagas migrated to Bengal and Kalinga first and then to Tamilnadu and Srilanka.Maravar, Eyinar, Oliyar, Aruvalar and Parathavar are the Naga tribes who invaded ancient Tamilnadu.

Mattakalappu Mahanmiyam written in 16th century in Srilanka,throws light on this Naga migration from the Gangetic belt to Bengal, Kalinga and then to East coast of Tamilnadu and Srilanka.

1)Tamil Karayar and Sinhalese Karave

அத்தனாபுரியை அரசு செய்த குருகுலத் ததிபர் நாகர் குலத் துரியோதனாதிகள் பாண்டுவின் குலத்துத் தாமர்களுக்குச் செய்த அபராதங்களையும் மகாபாரதத்தோடு
(மட்டக்களப்பு மான்மியம்)


Earlier when brave Srirama of Sun lineage went for hunting some fishermen loved him and considered him to be of their own lineage. Srirama gave them the title Raghu nadan and gave them rights in Ayodhya. Later that Maravar clan accompanied Srirama to Srilanka and uprooted the valiant Demon lineage.

வீரனென்னும் பரதிகுல யிரகுமுன்னாள்வேட்டை சென்றெங்கள் குலமெல்லிதன்னைமாரனென்றணைத்தீன்ற சவலையர்க்குவருஇரகு நாடனென நாமமிட்டுபூருவத்தி லயோத்தி யுரிமையீந்துபோன பின்னர் சிறிராமர் துணைவராகிதீரரென்னுமரக்கர்குலம் வேரறுத்தசிவ மறவர்குலம் நானும் வரிசைகேட்டேன்
(மட்டகளப்பு மான்மியம்)

அயோத்தி என்பது மறவர். 
(மட்டகளப்பு மான்மியம்)



Paradavar are migrants from the Parvatha kingdom in Himalayas. Alternative name for them is Parvatha Raja Kulam.
Parvatha kingdom was in the Baloochistan area ruled by Nagas.


Parvatas Kingdom refers to the territory of a tribe known as Parvatas (Mountaineers), mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. Most of the descriptions of Parvata kingdom in the epic refer to a mountainous country in the Himalayas. Tribes belonging to other mountainous regions in the north west, west and the east of the Indo-Gangetic Plain were also known as Parvatas, when used as a collective name. Parvatas took part in the Kurukshetra War.

Parvata kingdom was occupied by Parthian kings from Iran

Pāratarajas was a dynasty of Parthian kings, and ruling family from what is now Pakistan, from the 1st century to the 3rd century. The seat of their capital was Balochistan.

The Pāratas are thought to be identical with the Parthava of Iranian literature, the Parthians of Greek literature, and the Pāradas of Indian literature. Parathas ruled until 262 AD and then integrated by the Parthian empire.

After the occupation of their kingdom in the first century AD Parathavar might have migrated to south India. The language of Baloochistan is a Tamil like northern Dravidian language called Brahui.


Parathavas revolted against Pandyas. But each time they were defeated.

Arikesari (643 AD)
அரிகேசரி படையெடுத்து, சேர மன்னனொருவனோடு போர் செய்து வெற்றியும் பெற்றான். பரவரை புடைத்தான்; பாழி, செந்நிலம் குறுநில மன்னர்களை வென்றான். திருநெல்வேலியையும் வென்றான்.
நெல்வேலிச் செருவென்றும்
விரவி வந்தடையாத
பரவரை பாழ்படுத்தும்
அறுகாலினம் புடை திளைக்குங்
குறுநாட்டவர் குலங்கெடுத்தும்"

Pandiyan Nedunchelian

பரதவரைத் தலையாலங்கானத்துச் செருவென்ற பாண்டியன் நெடுஞ்செழியன் போரிட்டு அடக்கினான் என்ற செய்தியினைப் பத்துப்பாட்டில் ஒன்றான 'மதுரைக் காஞ்சி' என்ற சங்கப்பாடல் இவ்வாறு தெரிவிக்கிறது.

"தென் பரதவர் போரேறே",

Paranthaka Nedunchelian

பாண்டிய மன்னருக்கும் பரதவருக்கும் பிற்காலத்திலும் பகைமை இருந்ததை நெடுஞ்செழியன் பராந்தகன் வேள்விக்குடிச்செப்பட்டில் வரும் பரவரைப் பாழ்படுத்தும் என்ற சொல் உறுதிப்படுத்துகிறது.

பரதவரை பாண்டியன் வென்ற செய்தி "பரவரை பாழ்படுத்தி தென்பரதவர் மிடல் சாய"




Joao Da Cruz was a Nair Noble man related to Samuthiri of Calicut. When Vasco da Gama visited Kozhikode Samuthiri was persuaded to sent one of his relatives to Portuguese kings court. Joao Da Cruz's real name is unknown. He was sent to Portuguese court when he was about 15 years. Some accounts state he was a Nair some others call him as a Chetty, possibly a Vania Nair. He was also called Martin. Joao Da Cruz was converted to Christianity and was raised in the Portuguese court at Lisbon. He married a Portuguese Noble women and was given three ships by the Portuguese king and was send back to India. Then misfortune struck him. All his ships sank off coast of Kerala. Indebted Joao Da Cruz was imprisoned at Cochin.

After his release he reinvented him as a horse trader.Until 1516 Paravas used to pay tax to Vijayanagara governor Thumbichi Naickar and the Venad king. But in 1516 the pearl fishing coast was leased to local Muslim chieftains by king Butala Veera Udaiya Marthanda Varma.After this in the southern coastal area of Tamilnadu Muslims were collecting tax from fishermen. Each day the fishermen have to pay money to the local Muslim chieftain before going to the sea for fishing.But the Portuguese wanted tribute for themselves which the muslim chieftains refused. This was long 14 year war between Portuguese and the Moors, Arab mixed muslims eventually leading to the defeat of Moors in 1528 by De Mello. After this Portuguese increased the tribute of the Moors who inturn extracted it from Paravas.

In 1534 there was a Fisher women selling Paniyaram, a sweetmeat in the Market. She picked up a quarrel with a local Muslim man there. The angry Muslim took a knife and cut off her earlobe. It was customary for the Tamil women to wear Pampadam, a heavy ornament in their elongated Earlobes. Cutting off the Pampadam with the ear was a disgrace to them. All the Paravas gathered around the Fisher women. In the ensuing battle between Paravas and Muslims many died. Mercenaries paid by the Muslims killed Paravas systematically.

Shortly in 1534 Joao Da Cruz came to Tuticorin. He learned the happenings from the Paravas. Joao Da Cruz sympathetic to the plight of Paravas advised them to join the Portuguese and get converted to Christianity. Joao Da Cruz promised that the Paravas once converted Portuguese would protect them and free them from the Muslim yoke. Though in the Naickar territory a sea power like Portuguese had their influence along the coast. Paravas agreed.

In 1535, fifteen Parava Chieftains called Pattankattiyar(Patangatin) met Petro Vaz the captain at Cochin fort. The Parava Chieftains were converted to Christianity by Miguel Vaz a friar from Goa. Only after Paravas brought another 70 people Miguel Vaz agreed to Baptise them.Many of the Paravas adopted the same name as their saviour Joao Da Cruz. Moors tried to prevent the conversions. They sent two of their headman alongwith Cherina Marakkar who tried to bribe the Portuguese captain Pedro Vas with 20000 fanam, eight big Pearl's and cotton goods but the Captian did not budge.In 1536 two ships sailed from Cochin to Tuticorin carrying Joao Da Cruz, Miguel Vaz and other priests including Pedro Goncalves and the converted Paravas.

In the year 1536 the entire Parava community, many thousands of them from Pearl fishery coast had been converted. Paravas paid 75000 fanams for protection which was reduced to 60000 fanams per annum on the recommendation of Miguel Vaz.Joao returned back to Cochin. In the year 1537 Joao met the Venad/Travancore king and offered him horses and requested permission to convert the local Paravars.But the Samuthiri the relative of Joao Da Cruz was not happy about it. Samuthiri send a navy with Marakkars resulting in a fierce sea battle off the coast of Cape Comerin and also land battle in 1537 AD.
Joao Da Cruz, a converted Nair, was thus instrumental in the conversion of Paravas of Tuticorin and Venad. Later Paravas of Srilanka were also converted.